Origins in Fluid Immersion
    In Microscopy, Fluid immersion increases the resolution of the lens and extends its resolution and
    magnification well beyond what is possible with dry microscopy. A Similar process occurs with fluid
    scanning.  (The numerical Aperture of the lens is proportional to its numerical  aperture which in turn
    is proportional to the refractive index of the fluid). Similarly,
    Nikon microscopy website has an excellent write up of oil immersion microscopy. See Link
The fluid Mount
    In Fluid Immersion Scanning, the film is immersed in fluid during the scan. This is accomplished by
    placing fluid between glass an film and film and an optically clear overlay, as illustrated in the image
    (1) to the right, Ideally the fluid and the film backing have the same index of refraction or the closest
    the better. The index of refraction of LUMINA is close to that of the film backing.
Better Image Quality in Fluid
Immersion Scanning
  • When the source light strikes the dry grain, some of it travels through and some is lost to reflection.
    When light strikes film immersed in fluid, the light can travel through the grain without loss to
    reflection. (Fig. 2)
  • Reducing losses through reflection makes the image appear more brilliant and with greater color
  • Grain rich areas of the film block the passage of light. When some of the light is lost through
    reflection, there is less light available to illuminate the shadows and detail in the shadows are lost.
    Because there is more transmission integrity with fluid scanning, there is better definition of the
    shadow areas,  and greater dynamic range.
Elimination of Pepper Grain
  • Because losses through reflectivity at the grain are minimized with fluid scanning, less light is
    scattered as it hits the grain,-which results in greater resolution.  Reflectivity and light-scattering also
    have the effect of emphasizing the grain, making it appear bigger and coarser than it really is.
  • Cutting reflectivity cuts pepper grain.  "Pepper grain"  drives photographers to distraction but that
    only occurs to photographers that use high quality film scanners like the NIKON 8000 and the
    Imacon (prior to the latest model) which use a highly collimated light source. That collimated light
    source,  increases the reflectivity of the grain and causes 'pepper grain'.   The pity is that scanners
    that use a collimated light source potentially produce sharper scans.  Because fluid immersion
    undoes the negative effect of a collimated light, that potential is fully achieved if such scanners are
    used as fluid scanners.  
  • Flatbed scanners are seldom blamed with pepper grain, because only a very few of those can pick
    up grain detail.  Drum scanners, in spite of their high resolution, never get blamed for "pepper grain"
    either because all drum scanners are fluid scanners.
Elimination / reduction of Dust
& Scratches
    Fluid scanning has a similar effect on dust and scratches but while digital ICE generally degrades
    the image, fluid scanning upgrades the image. The extra time sp0ent on scanning with digital ICE is
    overcompensated by fluid scanning, It takes less time to fluid mount than to scan with digital ICE.
Newton Rings
Good bye to the glass holder
  • Newton Rings are caused by reflections between two surfaces when one of the surfaces is
    separated from the other at a slight angle. Along the horizontal axis, of the projection of a sine wave,
    the reflections from the surfaces interact and either knock each other out or  help each other.
  • The the result is a series of concentric rings that alternate between dark and light.  Newton rings are
    encountered in old fashioned devices such as the glass holder for the NIKON and a diffuser device
    that was sold to Minolta scanner users. People use these devices hoping to restrain film curvature
    and achieve a flat film plane, although that only succeeds when the curvature is down on the glass.
    With fluid scanning a perfectly flat film plane is a given, and without degrading the image as the
    glass holders do.  
  • Fluid scanning attains film flatness utilizing the surface tension of the fluid to temporarily  'glue'  the
    film to the glass.   The detrimental effects these old devices make them obsolete.
Newton Rings
Goodbye to Anti-Newton Glass
  • Since with Fluid Scanning newton rings are a thing of the past, AN glass has outlived its usefulness.
    AN glass is glass which has corrugations on the surface to break the Newton Rings but is
    detrimental the image.  You would not put AN glass in front of your camera lens.   
  • The improvement in image quality between a fluid scan and a glass holder with AN glass is
    significant.   The ScanScience System brings you refraction-free Fluid scanning to film scanners at a
    fraction of the cost of glass holders, and AN glass
Limitations of Dry Processes:
Scanning , Enlarging, and
    All these processes are similarly impaired.  The degradation of image quality due to the reflections
    and scattering at the film grain  are shared equally by all techniques. All these practices are similarly
    impaired.  The degradation of image quality due to the reflections and scattering at the film grain  are
    shared equally by all techniques.
Fluid Scanning techniques for
film and flatbed scanners by  
ScanScience  well established
for Drum Scanners
  • First used in drum scanners and now with the advent of ScanScience it is  universally used on all
  • Because drum scanners are fluid scanners by definition, their uniquely saturated and sharp quality
    and smoothness made it the choice of connoisseurs.  
  • With the advent of ScanScience, all other scanners can benefit in the same measure from fluid
    immersion scanning.  Significantly, users that have access to a drum scanner are finding that fluid
    scans with their NIKON, IMACON and EPSON scanners rival drum scans.
Time Spent:  
Digital ICE vs
Fluid Scanning
    Fluid scanning with ScanScience's  LUMINA Optical Super Fluid is easy and quick, it takes very
    little time and requires no post operative cleaning and drudgery. Compared to digital ICE it saves
    time:  You can assemble a wet mount faster than you can scan with digital ICE and it upgrades the
    image instead of degrading it like digital ICE.
Bringing Your Images to Life
Preferred by Photo Artists and Archivists Everywhere
Fluid Scanning Technology
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